Tabriz the second
largest city in Iran until the late 1960’s and one
of the former capitals is located in a valley to the
north of Mount Sahand with an altitude of 1340meters
above the sea level.
of Eastern Azerbaijan, it is 310 km southeast of
Bazargan (Iran- Turkey frontier); 159km south of
Jolfa on Iran- Azerbaijan Republic border, and can
be reached by good road and rail (742 km from
Tehran, with connections to Europe and Moscow).
Rivers such as Ajy Chay, Liqvan Chay, Maidan Chay
and Soofian Chay flow through this area.
The oldest stone tablet with a reference to Tabriz
is related to Sargon II one of the Assyrian rulers
714 BC. The inscription refers to a place called
Tauri Castle and Tarmkis. The historians believe
that this castle was situated in the present Tabriz.
The name of Tabriz has been mentioned in the 3rd and
4th centuries AD when the city of Tabriz was of
great importance. During the rule of Abu Mansur, in
990, the city was developed and extended.
During the reign of Aga Khan of Ilkhanids, as well
as under the reign of Ghazan Khan (1256-1353),
Tabriz reached the peak of glory and importance.
Many great artists and philosophers from all over
the then world traveled to Tabriz. Mosques such as
Alishah and Rab’-e Rashidy were constructed during
Following the demise of Timur, Kara Yousf of Kara
Koyunlu defeated his successors and established the
Kara Koyunlu dynasty in this city (1375-1468).
Jahanshah was the most famous King of this dynasty
during whose rule the famouse Kabud or Blue mosque
was built. Under the Safavids it rose from regional
to national capital for a short period, but the
second of the Savfavid kings, Shah Tahmasb, moved
the capital to Qazvin due to vulnerability of Tabriz
to Ottoman attacks.
Later centuries Tabriz has been the seat of great
warriors facing the Ottomans and Russians. The
constitutional Revolution originated in Tabriz and
culminated during the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah of
Qajar dynasty (1779-1925). Sattar Khan and Baqer
Khan were two most prominent and outspoken figures
behind the movement.
With a very rich history, Tabriz used to house many
historical monuments; unfortunately many of them
destroyed by earthquakes and repeated invasions.
Some of the main monuments in Tabriz are: Kabud
Mosque, Arg or Ali Shah Citadel, Poets mausoleum(
the resting place of over fifty famous Iranian
poets, mystics, and scientists), Azerbaijan museum
and El Goli. Other place of interest around Tabriz,
are: historical Village of Kandovan, Babak Castle in
Kalibar, St. Stephan’s Church in Jolfa and etc.