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Tabriz City

Tabriz the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960’s and one of the former capitals is located in a valley to the north of Mount Sahand with an altitude of 1340meters above the sea level.


Provincial capital of Eastern Azerbaijan, it is 310 km southeast of Bazargan (Iran- Turkey frontier); 159km south of Jolfa on Iran- Azerbaijan Republic border, and can be reached by good road and rail (742 km from Tehran, with connections to Europe and Moscow). Rivers such as Ajy Chay, Liqvan Chay, Maidan Chay and Soofian Chay flow through this area.
The oldest stone tablet with a reference to Tabriz is related to Sargon II one of the Assyrian rulers 714 BC. The inscription refers to a place called Tauri Castle and Tarmkis. The historians believe that this castle was situated in the present Tabriz.
The name of Tabriz has been mentioned in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD when the city of Tabriz was of great importance. During the rule of Abu Mansur, in 990, the city was developed and extended.

During the reign of Aga Khan of Ilkhanids, as well as under the reign of Ghazan Khan (1256-1353), Tabriz reached the peak of glory and importance. Many great artists and philosophers from all over the then world traveled to Tabriz. Mosques such as Alishah and Rab’-e Rashidy were constructed during this period.
Following the demise of Timur, Kara Yousf of Kara Koyunlu defeated his successors and established the Kara Koyunlu dynasty in this city (1375-1468). Jahanshah was the most famous King of this dynasty during whose rule the famouse Kabud or Blue mosque was built. Under the Safavids it rose from regional to national capital for a short period, but the second of the Savfavid kings, Shah Tahmasb, moved the capital to Qazvin due to vulnerability of Tabriz to Ottoman attacks.

Later centuries Tabriz has been the seat of great warriors facing the Ottomans and Russians. The constitutional Revolution originated in Tabriz and culminated during the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah of Qajar dynasty (1779-1925). Sattar Khan and Baqer Khan were two most prominent and outspoken figures behind the movement.

With a very rich history, Tabriz used to house many historical monuments; unfortunately many of them destroyed by earthquakes and repeated invasions. Some of the main monuments in Tabriz are: Kabud Mosque, Arg or Ali Shah Citadel, Poets mausoleum( the resting place of over fifty famous Iranian poets, mystics, and scientists), Azerbaijan museum and El Goli. Other place of interest around Tabriz, are: historical Village of Kandovan, Babak Castle in Kalibar, St. Stephan’s Church in Jolfa and etc.


Jomhoor Castle (Babak Castle)- Kalibar

Poets' mausoleum